In October 2007, in Dushanbe, the Tajik capital, signed an agreement with the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) to extend cooperation on issues such as security, crime and drug trafficking.  The Geneva II Peace Conference on the Near East was a UN-backed international (pacifist) conference aimed at bringing together the Syrian government and the opposition to discuss a transitional government. Lakhdar Brahimi, the UN special envoy for Syria, attempted to continue the conference in close collaboration with the United States and Russia. It began on January 22, 2014 and ended on January 31; no agreement has been reached. The third round of the Astana meetings, held between 14 and 15 March, resulted in an additional agreement between all parties to the existing ceasefire agreement.  As a result of these talks, Iran joined Turkey and Russia as guarantor states.  On 30 October 2015 in Vienna, the first round of peace negotiations on Syria took place with the foreign ministers of 20 participating countries: the United States, Russia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, China, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Germany and other countries. Ministers agreed that the Syrian government and the opposition should start political talks.   The second round of the Viennese talks, in mid-November, resulted in an agreement on the need to bring together representatives of the Syrian government and the opposition for formal negotiations under the aegis of the United Nations, with a deadline of 1 January 2016.
 Following the Syrian government`s agreement on the CL plan of 19 December, the AL sent a surveillance mission to Syria. The violence continued and Saudi Arabia withdrew its observers from the mission and urged Russia, China and all other states to put pressure on Syria to strongly comply with the ACCORD peace plan. The Arab League completed its monitoring mission on 28 January 2012.  Two days of discussions on strengthening the ceasefire regime (see above, December 2016) in the nearly six-year-old Syrian conflict ended on 16 February in Astana with the adoption of a document formalising the monitoring of the ceasefire agreement of 29 December 2016 (see above). The document will lead the activities of a joint task group, which will be made up of Russia, Turkey and Iran, which will be set up at the previous meeting in Astana in January. The document also aims to guide the confidence-building measures of the opposing parties.  On 12 December, an agreement was reached:  34 opposition groups and individuals allied as the „High Negotiating Committee“.  These include Ahrar al-Sham and Jaysh al-Islam, but also not Syrian Kurds and some moderate members of the Russian-backed opposition.  Two of the 34 members are women, supplemented by a women-only advisory board known as the Women`s Advisory Committee.
 France reported that „the Syrian opposition“ had reached an agreement and had „adopted a common agenda“ in Riyadh.  In addition to France and Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Qatar also supported this „high negotiating committee“.  The talks ended without a definitive ceasefire agreement, supposedly due to the refusal of the anti-government side to accept new Russian conditions for control of Idlib province.  The start of the talks in Astana has been described as the „astana-isation“ of the Geneva talks, which implies a shift towards the Syrian opposition, which is conducting military operations and is moving away from Syrians who have only political influence.  Discussions will take place on January 23 and 24; the first day ended without the parties reaching an agreement.  The „Astana Process“ talks were aimed at supporting the framework in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 2254 and concluded on 24th with an agreement between Iran, Russia and Turkey to establish a joint monitoring body to work on the implementation of the ceasefire of Resolution 2254.  The seventh round of the Astana process on Syrian peace began in Astana with the support of Russia and Iran.  Discussions